• Hierarchical involvement of various GGDEF domain proteins in rdar morphotype development of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

      Kader, Abdul; Simm, Roger; Gerstel, Ulrich; Morr, Michael; Römling, Ute; Microbiology and Tumor Biology Center (MTC), Karolinska Institutet, Box 280, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. (2006-05)
      GGDEF and EAL domain proteins are involved in the turnover of the novel secondary messenger cyclic-di(3'-->5')-guanylic acid (c-di-GMP) in many bacteria. In this work the role of the 12 GGDEF domain proteins encoded by the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) chromosome in rdar morphotype development was investigated. Previously, it was shown that the GGDEF domain protein AdrA activated the biosynthesis of cellulose by production of c-di-GMP. Enhancement of the c-di-GMP levels by overexpression of the GGDEF domain protein AdrA did lead to the activation of curli fimbriae biosynthesis through the elevated expression of CsgD and CsgA. Although knock-out of the chromosomal copy of adrA influenced CsgA expression, CsgD expression was not altered, although more than half of the total cellular c-di-GMP was produced by AdrA at 16 h of growth. On the other hand, chromosomally encoded GGDEF-EAL domain proteins STM2123 and STM3388 were required to additively activate CsgD expression on a transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Enhanced c-di-GMP levels did overcome temperature regulation of rdar morphotype expression by activation of curli fimbriae as well as cellulose biosynthesis through CsgD expression. Thus in the regulatory cascade leading to rdar morphotype expression c-di-GMP activates several subsequent steps in the network.
    • SiaA and SiaD are essential for inducing autoaggregation as a specific response to detergent stress in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

      Klebensberger, Janosch; Birkenmaier, Antoinette; Geffers, Robert; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Philipp, Bodo; Universität Konstanz, Fachbereich Biologie, Mikrobielle Okologie, Fach M654, 78457 Konstanz, Germany. (2009-12)
      Cell aggregation is a stress response and serves as a survival strategy for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 during growth with the toxic detergent Na-dodecylsulfate (SDS). This process involves the psl operon and is linked to c-di-GMP signalling. The induction of cell aggregation in response to SDS was studied. Transposon and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the cupA-operon and the co-transcribed genes siaA (PA0172) and siaD (PA0169) were essential for SDS-induced aggregation. While siaA encodes a putative membrane protein with a HAMP and a PP2C-like phosphatase domain, siaD encodes a putative diguanylate cyclase involved in the biosynthesis of c-di-GMP. Complementation studies uncovered that the loss of SDS-induced aggregation in the formerly isolated spontaneous mutant strain N was caused by a non-functional siaA allele. DNA-microarray analysis of SDS-grown cells revealed consistent activation of eight genes, including cupA1, with known or presumptive important functions in cell aggregation in the parent strain compared with non-aggregating siaA and siaD mutants. A siaAD-dependent increase of cupA1 mRNA levels in SDS-grown cells was also shown by Northern blots. These results clearly demonstrate that SiaAD are essential for inducing cell aggregation as a specific response to SDS and suggest that they are responsible for perceiving and transducing SDS-related stress.