• On the Rho'd: the regulation of membrane protrusions by Rho-GTPases.

      Ladwein, Markus; Rottner, Klemens; Cytoskeleton Dynamics Group, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), Inhoffen Strasse 7, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2008-06-18)
      Cell migration entails the formation of cellular protrusions such as lamellipodia or filopodia, the growth of which is powered by the polymerisation of actin filaments abutting the plasma membrane. Specific Rho-GTPase subfamilies are able to drive different types of protrusions. However, significant crosstalk between Rho-family members and the interplay of distinct Rho-effectors regulating or modulating actin reorganization in protrusions complicate the picture of how precisely they are initiated and maintained. Here, we briefly sketch our current knowledge on structure and dynamics of different protrusions as well as their regulation by Rho-GTPases. We also comment on topical, unresolved controversies in the field, with special emphasis on the interrelation of different protrusion types, and on the composition of the nanomachineries driving them.