• On the origin of the electrostatic surface potential of Aspergillus niger spores in acidic environments.

      Wargenau, Andreas; Fleissner, André; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Rohde, Manfred; Kampen, Ingo; Kwade, Arno; Institut für Partikeltechnik, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Volkmaroder Straße 5, D-38104 Braunschweig, Germany. wargenau@a-wargenau.de (2011-12)
      The electrostatic surface potential of fungal spores is generally regarded as potentially influencing spore aggregation and pellet formation in submerged cultures of filamentous fungi. Spores of Aspergillus niger are typically characterized by negative zeta potentials over a wide range of pH values. In this study, this particular behavior is ascribed to the presence of an extensive melanin coating. It is proposed on the basis of zeta potential and pigment extraction experiments that this outermost layer affects the pH-dependent surface potential in two manners: (i) by the addition of negative charges to the spore surface and (ii) by the pH-dependent release of melanin pigment. Chemical analyses revealed that deprotonation of melanin-bound carboxyl groups is most probably responsible for pigment release under acidic conditions. These findings were incorporated into a simple model which has the ability to qualitatively explain the results of zeta potential experiments and, moreover, to provide the basis for quantitative investigations on the role of electrostatics in spore aggregation.
    • An optimized in vitro blood-brain barrier model reveals bidirectional transmigration of African trypanosome strains.

      Untucht, Christopher; Rasch, Janine; Fuchs, Elena; Rohde, Manfred; Bergmann, Simone; Steinert, Michael (2011-10)
      The transmigration of African trypanosomes across the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the critical step during the course of human African trypanosomiasis. The parasites Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense are transmitted to humans during the bite of tsetse flies. Trypanosomes multiply within the bloodstream and finally invade the central nervous system (CNS), which leads to the death of untreated patients. This project focused on the mechanisms of trypanosomal traversal across the BBB. In order to establish a suitable in vitro BBB model for parasite transmigration, different human cell lines were used, including ECV304, HBMEC and HUVEC, as well as C6 rat astrocytes. Validation of the BBB models with Escherichia coli HB101 and E. coli K1 revealed that a combination of ECV304 cells seeded on Matrigel as a semi-synthetic basement membrane and C6 astrocytes resulted in an optimal BBB model system. The BBB model showed selective permeability for the pathogenic E. coli K1 strain, and African trypanosomes were able to traverse the optimized ECV304-C6 BBB efficiently. Furthermore, coincubation indicated that paracellular macrophage transmigration does not facilitate trypanosomal BBB traversal. An inverse assembly of the BBB model demonstrated that trypanosomes were also able to transmigrate the optimized ECV304-C6 BBB backwards, indicating the relevance of the CNS as a possible reservoir of a relapsing parasitaemia.
    • P159 is a proteolytically processed, surface adhesin of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae: defined domains of P159 bind heparin and promote adherence to eukaryote cells.

      Burnett, Tracey A; Dinkla, Katrin; Rohde, Manfred; Chhatwal, Gursharan S; Uphoff, Cord; Srivastava, Mukesh; Cordwell, Stuart J; Geary, Steven; Liao, Xiaofen; Minion, F Chris; et al. (2006-05-01)
      Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, colonizes the respiratory cilia of affected swine causing significant economic losses to swine production worldwide. Heparin is known to inhibit adherence of M. hyopneumoniae to porcine respiratory epithelial cilia. M. hyopneumoniae cells bind heparin but the identity of the heparin-binding proteins is limited. Proteomic analysis of M. hyopneumoniae lysates identified 27 kDa (P27), 110 kDa (P110) and 52 kDa (P52) proteins representing different regions of a 159 kDa (P159) protein derived from mhp494. These cleavage fragments were surface located and present at all growth stages. Following purification of four recombinant proteins spanning P159 (F1P159, F2P159, F3P159 and F4P159), only F3P159 and F4P159 bound heparin in a dose-dependent manner (K(d) values 142.37 +/- 22.01 nM; 75.37 +/- 7.34 nM respectively). Scanning electron microscopic studies showed M. hyopneumoniae bound intimately to porcine kidney epithelial-like cells (PK15 cells) but these processes were inhibited by excess heparin and F4P159. Similarly, latex beads coated with F2P159 and F4P159 adhered to and entered PK15 cells, but heparin, F2P159 and F4P159 was inhibitory. These findings indicate that P159 is a post-translationally cleaved, glycosaminoglycan-binding adhesin of M. hyopneumoniae.
    • PavA of Streptococcus pneumoniae Modulates Adherence, Invasion, and Meningeal Inflammation

      Pracht, Daniela; Elm, Christine; Gerber, Joachim; Bergmann, Simone; Rohde, Manfred; Seiler, Marleen; Kim, Kwang S.; Jenkinson, Howard F.; Nau, Roland; Hammerschmidt, Sven (American Society for Microbiology, 2005-05)
    • Permanent draft genome sequence of Dethiosulfovibrio peptidovorans type strain (SEBR 4207).

      Labutti, Kurt; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Clum, Alicia; Lucas, Susan; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Nolan, Matt; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; et al. (2010)
      Dethiosulfovibrio peptidovorans Magot et al. 1997 is the type species of the genus Dethiosulfovibrio of the family Synergistaceae in the recently created phylum Synergistetes. The strictly anaerobic, vibriod, thiosulfate-reducing bacterium utilizes peptides and amino acids, but neither sugars nor fatty acids. It was isolated from an offshore oil well where it was been reported to be involved in pitting corrosion of mild steel. Initially, this bacterium was described as a distant relative of the genus Thermoanaerobacter, but was not assigned to a genus, it was subsequently placed into the novel phylum Synergistetes. A large number of repeats in the genome sequence prevented an economically justifiable closure of the last gaps. This is only the third published genome from a member of the phylum Synergistetes. The 2,576,359 bp long genome consists of three contigs with 2,458 protein-coding and 59 RNA genes and is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
    • Permanent draft genome sequence of the gliding predator Saprospira grandis strain Sa g1 (= HR1).

      Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Chertkov, Olga; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; et al. (2012-05-25)
      Saprospira grandis Gross 1911 is a member of the Saprospiraceae, a family in the class 'Sphingobacteria' that remains poorly characterized at the genomic level. The species is known for preying on other marine bacteria via 'ixotrophy'. S. grandis strain Sa g1 was isolated from decaying crab carapace in France and was selected for genome sequencing because of its isolated location in the tree of life. Only one type strain genome has been published so far from the Saprospiraceae, while the sequence of strain Sa g1 represents the second genome to be published from a non-type strain of S. grandis. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,495,250 bp long Improved-High-Quality draft of the genome with its 3,536 protein-coding and 62 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
    • Pretreatment of Mice with Streptomycin Provides a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Colitis Model That Allows Analysis of Both Pathogen and Host

      Barthel, Manja; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Quintanilla-Martínez, Leticia; Kremer, Marcus; Rohde, Manfred; Hogardt, Michael; Pfeffer, Klaus; Rüssmann, Holger; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich (American Society for Microbiology, 2003-05)
    • Pretubulysin: from hypothetical biosynthetic intermediate to potential lead in tumor therapy.

      Herrmann, Jennifer; Elnakady, Yasser A; Wiedmann, Romina M; Ullrich, Angelika; Rohde, Manfred; Kazmaier, Uli; Vollmar, Angelika M; Müller, Rolf; Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research and Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany. (2012)
      Pretubulysin is a natural product that is found in strains of myxobacteria in only minute amounts. It represents the first enzyme-free intermediate in the biosynthesis of tubulysins and undergoes post-assembly acylation and oxidation reactions. Pretubulysin inhibits the growth of cultured mammalian cells, as do tubulysins, which are already in advanced preclinical development as anticancer and antiangiogenic agents. The mechanism of action of this highly potent compound class involves the depolymerization of microtubules, thereby inducing mitotic arrest. Supply issues with naturally occurring derivatives can now be circumvented by the total synthesis of pretubulysin, which, in contrast to tubulysin, is synthetically accessible in gram-scale quantities. We show that the simplified precursor is nearly equally potent to the parent compound. Pretubulysin induces apoptosis and inhibits cancer cell migration and tubulin assembly in vitro. Consequently, pretubulysin appears to be an ideal candidate for future development in preclinical trials and is a very promising early lead structure in cancer therapy.
    • Rapid identification of viridans streptococci by mass spectrometric discrimination.

      Friedrichs, C; Rodloff, A C; Chhatwal, G S; Schellenberger, W; Eschrich, K; Institute for Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, University of Leipzig, Liebigstr. 24, D-04105 Leipzig, Germany. claudia.friedrichs@medizin.uni-leipzig.de (2007-08)
      Viridans streptococci (VS) are responsible for several systemic diseases, such as endocarditis, abscesses, and septicemia. Unfortunately, species identification by conventional methods seems to be more difficult than species identification of other groups of bacteria. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for the rapid identification of 10 different species of VS. A total of 99 VS clinical isolates, 10 reference strains, and 20 strains from our in-house culture collection were analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS. To evaluate the mass-spectrometric discrimination results, all strains were identified in parallel by phenotypic and genotypic methods. MALDI-TOF-MS identified 71 isolates as the mitis group, 23 as the anginosus group, and 5 as Streptococcus salivarius. Comparison of the species identification results obtained by the MALDI-TOF-MS analyses and with the phenotypic/genotypic identification systems showed 100% consistency at the species level. Thus, MALDI-TOF-MS seems to be a rapid and reliable method for the identification of species of VS from clinical samples.
    • Rapid paracellular transmigration of Campylobacter jejuni across polarized epithelial cells without affecting TER: role of proteolytic-active HtrA cleaving E-cadherin but not fibronectin

      Boehm, Manja; Hoy, Benjamin; Rohde, Manfred; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Bæk, Kristoffer T; Oyarzabal, Omar A; Brøndsted, Lone; Wessler, Silja; Backert, Steffen (2012-04-25)
      Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most important bacterial pathogens causing food-borne illness worldwide. Crossing the intestinal epithelial barrier and host cell entry by C. jejuni is considered the primary reason of damage to the intestinal tissue, but the molecular mechanisms as well as major bacterial and host cell factors involved in this process are still widely unclear. Results In the present study, we characterized the serine protease HtrA (high-temperature requirement A) of C. jejuni as a secreted virulence factor with important proteolytic functions. Infection studies and in vitro cleavage assays showed that C. jejuni’s HtrA triggers shedding of the extracellular E-cadherin NTF domain (90 kDa) of non-polarised INT-407 and polarized MKN-28 epithelial cells, but fibronectin was not cleaved as seen for H. pylori’s HtrA. Deletion of the htrA gene in C. jejuni or expression of a protease-deficient S197A point mutant did not lead to loss of flagella or reduced bacterial motility, but led to severe defects in E-cadherin cleavage and transmigration of the bacteria across polarized MKN-28 cell layers. Unlike other highly invasive pathogens, transmigration across polarized cells by wild-type C. jejuni is highly efficient and is achieved within a few minutes of infection. Interestingly, E-cadherin cleavage by C. jejuni occurs in a limited fashion and transmigration required the intact flagella as well as HtrA protease activity, but does not reduce transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) as seen with Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria or Neisseria. Conclusion These results suggest that HtrA-mediated E-cadherin cleavage is involved in rapid crossing of the epithelial barrier by C. jejuni via a very specific mechanism using the paracellular route to reach basolateral surfaces, but does not cleave the fibronectin receptor which is necessary for cell entry.
    • Rapid paracellular transmigration of Campylobacter jejuni across polarized epithelial cells without affecting TER: role of proteolytic-active HtrA cleaving E-cadherin but not fibronectin.

      Boehm, Manja; Hoy, Benjamin; Rohde, Manfred; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Bæk, Kristoffer T; Oyarzabal, Omar A; Brøndsted, Lone; Wessler, Silja; Backert, Steffen; From the School for Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Belfield Campus, Dublin-4, Ireland. Steffen.Backert@ucd.ie. (2012)
      ABSTRACT:
    • Reclassification and emended description of Caulobacter leidyi as Sphingomonas leidyi comb. nov., and emendation of the genus Sphingomonas.

      Chen, Hong; Jogler, Mareike; Rohde, Manfred; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Tindall, Brian J; Spröer, Cathrin; Overmann, Jörg; Bereich Mikrobiologie, Department Biologie I, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Planegg-Martinsried, Germany. (2012-12)
      'Caulobacter leidyi' DSM 4733(T) has been shown to be affiliated with the family Sphingomonadaceae instead of the Caulobacteraceae, and due to its poor characterization has been omitted from the current edition of Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology and removed to limbo. We isolated a novel sphingoglycolipid-containing dimorphic prosthecate bacterium, designated strain 247, from a pre-alpine freshwater lake. Strain 247 and 'Caulobacter leidyi' DSM 4733(T) were characterized in detail. The rod-shaped cells were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, and formed a stalk or polar flagellum. Both strains grew optimally at 28-30 °C, and pH 6.0-8.0. The major fatty acids were C(18 : 1)ω7c, C(16 : 0) and 11-methyl C(18 : 1)ω7c. C(14 : 0) 2-OH represents the major 2-hydroxy fatty acid. Q-10 was the major respiratory quinone and the major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, three glycolipids, two phosphoaminolipids and two unidentified sphingoglycolipids. The major polyamine was sym-homospermidine. The G+C content of genomic DNA of strains 247 and DSM 4733(T) was 67.6 mol% and 67.0 mol%, respectively. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization, strains DSM 4733(T) and 247 were phylogenetically closely related (99.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, 82.9 % DNA-DNA hybridization value) and affiliated to the genus Sphingomonas. The closest recognized species was Sphingomonas aquatilis DSM 15581(T) (98.1 % sequence similarity). In addition, the presence of cystine arylamidase, absence of β-galactosidase, and the inability to utilize l-arabinose, galactose and sucrose distinguished strains DSM 4733(T) and 247 from most other members of the family Sphingomonadaceae. So far, the dimorphic life cycle that involves a prosthecate and a flagellated stage is unique for strains DSM 4733(T) and 247 among all members of the family Sphingomonadaceae. Therefore, Caulobacter leidyi is reclassified as Sphingomonas leidyi, with the type strain DSM 4733(T) ( = ATCC 15260(T) = CIP 106443(T) = VKM B-1368(T)) and strain 247 (DSM 25078 = LMG 26658) as an additional strain of this species.
    • Region specific and worldwide distribution of collagen-binding M proteins with PARF motifs among human pathogenic streptococcal isolates.

      Reissmann, Silvana; Gillen, Christine M; Fulde, Marcus; Bergmann, René; Nerlich, Andreas; Rajkumari, Reena; Brahmadathan, Kootallur N; Chhatwal, Gursharan S; Nitsche-Schmitz, D Patric; Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany. (2012)
      Some of the variety of Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis (SDSE) M proteins act as collagen-binding adhesins that facilitate acute infection. Moreover, their potential to trigger collagen autoimmunity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute rheumatic fever and attributed to a collagen-binding motif called PARF (peptide associated with rheumatic fever). For the first time we determine the rate of clinical isolates with collagen-binding M proteins that use a PARF motif (A/T/E)XYLXX(L/F)N in a defined geographic region, Vellore in South India. In this region both, incidence of streptococcal infections and prevalence of acute rheumatic fever are high. M proteins with PARF motif conferred collagen-binding activity to 3.9% of 153 S. pyogenes and 10.6% of 255 SDSE clinical isolates from Vellore. The PARF motif occurred in three S. pyogenes and 22 SDSE M protein types. In one of the S. pyogenes and five of the SDSE M proteins that contained the motif, collagen-binding was impaired, due to influences of other parts of the M protein molecule. The accumulated data on the collagen binding activity of certain M protein types allowed a reanalysis of published worldwide emm-typing data with the aim to estimate the rates of isolates that bind collagen via PARF. The results indicate that M proteins, which bind collagen via a PARF motif, are epidemiologically relevant in human infections, not only in Vellore. It is imperative to include the most relevant collagen-binding M types in vaccines. But when designing M protein based vaccines it should be considered that collagen binding motifs within the vaccine antigen remain potential risk factors.
    • Rheumatic fever–associated Streptococcus pyogenes isolates aggregate collagen

      Dinkla, Katrin; Rohde, Manfred; Jansen, Wouter T.M.; Kaplan, Edward L.; Chhatwal, Gursharan S.; Talay, Susanne R. (American Society for Clinical Investigation, 2003-06-15)
    • Role of glucose and CcpA in capsule expression and virulence of Streptococcus suis.

      Willenborg, J; Fulde, M; de Greeff, A; Rohde, Manfred; Smith, H E; Valentin-Weigand, P; Goethe, R; Institute for Microbiology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany. (2011-06)
      Streptococcus suis is one of the most important pathogens in pigs and is also an emerging zoonotic agent. After crossing the epithelial barrier, S. suis causes bacteraemia, resulting in meningitis, endocarditis and bronchopneumonia. Since the host environment seems to be an important regulatory component for virulence, we related expression of virulence determinants of S. suis to glucose availability during growth and to the sugar metabolism regulator catabolite control protein A (CcpA). We found that expression of the virulence-associated genes arcB, representing arcABC operon expression, cps2A, representing capsular locus expression, as well as sly, ofs, sao and epf, differed significantly between exponential and early stationary growth of a highly virulent serotype 2 strain. Deletion of ccpA altered the expression of the surface-associated virulence factors arcB, sao and eno, as well as the two currently proven virulence factors in pigs, ofs and cps2A, in early exponential growth. Global expression analysis using a cDNA expression array revealed 259 differentially expressed genes in early exponential growth, of which 141 were more highly expressed in the CcpA mutant strain 10ΔccpA and 118 were expressed to a lower extent. Interestingly, among the latter genes, 18 could be related to capsule and cell wall synthesis. Correspondingly, electron microscopy characterization of strain 10ΔccpA revealed a markedly reduced thickness of the capsule. This phenotype correlated with enhanced binding to porcine plasma proteins and a reduced resistance to killing by porcine neutrophils. Taken together, our data demonstrate that CcpA has a significant effect on the capsule synthesis and virulence properties of S. suis.
    • Role of Macrophages in Host Resistance to Group A Streptococci

      Goldmann, Oliver; Rohde, Manfred; Chhatwal, Gursharan Singh; Medina, Eva (American Society for Microbiology, 2004-05)
    • SCM, a novel M-like protein from Streptococcus canis, binds (mini)-plasminogen with high affinity and facilitates bacterial transmigration.

      Fulde, Marcus; Rohde, Manfred; Hitzmann, Angela; Preissner, Klaus T; Nitsche-Schmitz, D Patric; Nerlich, Andreas; Chhatwal, Gursharan Singh; Bergmann, Simone; Department of Medical Microbiology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), Braunschweig, Germany. Marcus.Fulde@helmholtz-hzi.de (2011-02-24)
      Streptococcus canis is an important zoonotic pathogen capable of causing serious invasive diseases in domestic animals and humans. In the present paper we report the binding of human plasminogen to S. canis and the recruitment of proteolytically active plasmin on its surface. The binding receptor for plasminogen was identified as a novel M-like protein designated SCM (S. canis M-like protein). SPR (surface plasmon resonance) analyses, radioactive dot-blot analyses and heterologous expression on the surface of Streptococcus gordonii confirmed the plasminogen-binding capability of SCM. The binding domain was located within the N-terminus of SCM, which specifically bound to the C-terminal part of plasminogen (mini-plasminogen) comprising kringle domain 5 and the catalytic domain. In the presence of urokinase, SCM mediated plasminogen activation on the bacterial surface that was inhibited by serine protease inhibitors and lysine amino acid analogues. Surface-bound plasmin effectively degraded purified fibrinogen as well as fibrin clots, resulting in the dissolution of fibrin thrombi. Electron microscopic illustration and time-lapse imaging demonstrated bacterial transmigration through fibrinous thrombi. The present study has led, for the first time, to the identification of SCM as a novel receptor for (mini)-plasminogen mediating the fibrinolytic activity of S. canis.
    • Sequencing and characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage JG004.

      Garbe, Julia; Bunk, Boyke; Rohde, Manfred; Schobert, Max; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2011)
      Phages could be an important alternative to antibiotics, especially for treatment of multiresistant bacteria as e.g. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For an effective use of bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents, it is important to understand phage biology but also genes of the bacterial host essential for phage infection.
    • Simultaneous Deficiency of both MurA and p60 Proteins Generates a Rough Phenotype in Listeria monocytogenes

      Machata, Silke; Hain, Torsten; Rohde, Manfred; Chakraborty, Trinad (American Society for Microbiology, 2005-12)
    • Sphingomonas starnbergensis sp. nov., isolated from a prealpine freshwater lake.

      Chen, Hong; Jogler, Mareike; Tindall, Brian J; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Rohde, Manfred; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Overmann, Jörg; Bereich Mikrobiologie, Department Biologie I, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Planegg-Martinsried, Germany. (2013-03)
      A novel type of freshwater bacterium was isolated from the prealpine mesotrophic Starnberger See (Bavaria, southern Germany). Cells of strain 382(T) were Gram-negative and rod-shaped, motile and creamy-white. The isolate was strictly aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, and grew at pH values of 6-9 (optimum, pH 7) and temperatures of 10-37 °C (optimum, 28 °C). The genomic G+C content of strain 382(T) was 64.1 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, strain 382(T) belongs to the family Sphingomonadaceae and clusters within the genus Sphingomonas. Sphingomonas histidinilytica UM 2(T) and Sphingomonas wittichii DSM 6014(T) were the closest relatives, as indicated by the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities (97.1 % and 96.8 %, respectively). Sphingomonas paucimobilis DSM 1098(T) (the type species of the genus Sphingomonas) exhibited 95.3 % sequence similarity. This affiliation of strain 382(T) to the genus Sphingomonas is confirmed by the presence of Q-10 as the major respiratory quinone, two sphingoglycolipids, C14 : 0 2-OH as the major 2-hydroxy fatty acid and sym-homospermidine as the major polyamine. The main cellular fatty acids of strain 382(T) were C18 : 1ω7c (39 %), C16 : 1ω7c (21 %), C16 : 0 (10 %) and C14 : 0 2-OH (10 %). Based on the phylogenetic distance from other species of the genus Sphingomonas and its unusually high C16 : 1ω7c content, strain 382(T) represents a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas starnbergensis is proposed. The type strain is 382(T) ( = DSM 25077(T)  = LMG 26763(T)).