• A novel intranasal mouse model for mucosal colonization by Streptococcus suis serotype 2.

      Seitz, Maren; Beineke, Andreas; Seele, Jana; Fulde, Marcus; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Baums, Christoph Georg; 1Institute for Microbiology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany. (2012-09)
      Streptococcus suis causes meningitis and various other diseases in pigs and humans. Healthy piglets carrying virulent Streptococcus suis strains on their mucosal surfaces are epidemiologically very important. The objective of this study was to establish an intranasal Streptococcus suis mouse model for invasion and colonization of the respiratory tract. CD1 mice were infected intranasally with a highly virulent Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strain under different conditions. Clinical, histological and bacteriological screenings revealed that invasion of host tissue occurred in the majority of mice only after predisposition with 12.5 µl 1 % acetic acid per nostril. Severe fibrinosuppurative or purulent necrotizing pneumonia associated with Streptococcus suis was a common manifestation. Furthermore, a novel model to study nasopharyngeal colonization was established by reducing the volume of 1 % acetic acid per nostril to 5 µl prior to Streptococcus suis application. This model mimics asymptomatic carriage in swine, as all mice carried Streptococcus suis on their respiratory mucosa at 7 days post-infection (p.i.) in moderate to high numbers without the development of pneumonia or any other invasive Streptococcus suis disease. This intranasal Streptococcus suis model was applied to investigate the function of suilysin (SLY) in colonization. Although an isogenic SLY mutant was isolated from the upper respiratory tract at a lower recovery rate than its wild-type parental strain at 14 days p.i., the differences were not significant and did not indicate severe attenuation in colonization. In conclusion, this work describes to the best of our knowledge the first intranasal mouse model to study colonization of the respiratory tract by a highly virulent Streptococcus suis pathotype.
    • A novel role for the transcription factor HIF-1α in the formation of mast cell extracellular traps.

      Branitzki-Heinemann, Katja; Okumura, Cheryl Y; Völlger, Lena; Kawakami, Yuko; Kawakami, Toshiaki; Naim, Hassan Y; Nizet, Victor; Von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. (2012-08-15)
      MCs (mast cells) are critical components of the host innate immune defence against bacterial pathogens, providing a variety of intra- and extra-cellular antimicrobial functions. In the present study we show, for the first time, that the transcriptional regulator HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor-1α) mediates the extracellular antimicrobial activity of human and murine MCs by increasing the formation of MCETs (MC extracellular traps).
    • Live Helicobacter pylori in the root canal of endodontic-infected deciduous teeth.

      Hirsch, Christian; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Rohde, Manfred; Rowland, Marion; Oyarzabal, Omar A; Backert, Steffen; Department of Paediatric Dentistry, University School of Dental Medicine, University of Leipzig, Nuernberger Straße 57, 04103, Leipzig, Germany. Christian.Hirsch@medizin.uni-leipzig.de (2012-08)
      Many polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based studies have shown that Helicobacter pylori DNA is prevalent in the oral cavity, but reports on the isolation of live bacteria are extremely rare. Thus, it is still unclear whether H. pylori can indeed survive in the oral environment.
    • Streptococcal surface proteins activate the contact system and control its antibacterial activity.

      Wollein Waldetoft, Kristofer; Svensson, Lisbeth; Mörgelin, Matthias; Olin, Anders I; Nitsche-Schmitz, D Patric; Björck, Lars; Frick, Inga-Maria; Division of Infection Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, SE-221 84 Lund, Sweden. kristofer.wollein_waldetoft@med.lu.se (2012-07-20)
      Group G streptococci (GGS) are important bacterial pathogens in humans. Here, we investigated the interactions between GGS and the contact system, a procoagulant and proinflammatory proteolytic cascade that, upon activation, also generates antibacterial peptides. Two surface proteins of GGS, protein FOG and protein G (PG), were found to bind contact system proteins. Experiments utilizing contact protein-deficient human plasma and isogenic GGS mutant strains lacking FOG or PG showed that FOG and PG both activate the procoagulant branch of the contact system. In contrast, only FOG induced cleavage of high molecular weight kininogen, generating the proinflammatory bradykinin peptide and additional high molecular weight kininogen fragments containing the antimicrobial peptide NAT-26. On the other hand, PG protected the bacteria against the antibacterial effect of NAT-26. These findings underline the significance of the contact system in innate immunity and demonstrate that GGS have evolved surface proteins to exploit and modulate its effects.
    • Permanent draft genome sequence of the gliding predator Saprospira grandis strain Sa g1 (= HR1).

      Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Chertkov, Olga; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; et al. (2012-05-25)
      Saprospira grandis Gross 1911 is a member of the Saprospiraceae, a family in the class 'Sphingobacteria' that remains poorly characterized at the genomic level. The species is known for preying on other marine bacteria via 'ixotrophy'. S. grandis strain Sa g1 was isolated from decaying crab carapace in France and was selected for genome sequencing because of its isolated location in the tree of life. Only one type strain genome has been published so far from the Saprospiraceae, while the sequence of strain Sa g1 represents the second genome to be published from a non-type strain of S. grandis. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,495,250 bp long Improved-High-Quality draft of the genome with its 3,536 protein-coding and 62 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
    • Complete genome sequence of the orange-red pigmented, radioresistant Deinococcus proteolyticus type strain (MRP(T)).

      Copeland, Alex; Zeytun, Ahmet; Yassawong, Montri; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; et al. (2012-05-25)
      Deinococcus proteolyticus (ex Kobatake et al. 1973) Brook and Murray 1981 is one of currently 47 species in the genus Deinococcus within the family Deinococcaceae. Strain MRP(T) was isolated from feces of Lama glama and possesses extreme radiation resistance, a trait is shares with various other species of the genus Deinococcus, with D. proteolyticus being resistant up to 1.5 Mrad of gamma radiation. Strain MRP(T) is of further interest for its carotenoid pigment. The genome presented here is only the fifth completed genome sequence of a member of the genus Deinococcus (and the forth type strain) to be published, and will hopefully contribute to a better understanding of how members of this genus adapted to high gamma- or UV ionizing-radiation. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,886,836 bp long genome with its four large plasmids of lengths 97 kbp, 132 kbp, 196 kbp and 315 kbp harbors 2,741 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
    • Genome sequence of the moderately thermophilic, amino-acid-degrading and sulfur-reducing bacterium Thermovirga lienii type strain (Cas60314(T)).

      Göker, Markus; Saunders, Elisabeth; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; et al. (2012-05-25)
      Thermovirga lienii Dahle and Birkeland 2006 is a member of the genus Thermovirga in the genomically moderately well characterized phylum 'Synergistetes'. Members of this relatively recently proposed phylum 'Synergistetes' are of interest because of their isolated phylogenetic position and their diverse habitats, e.g. from humans to oil wells. The genome of T. lienii Cas60314(T) is the fifth genome sequence (third completed) from this phylum to be published. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 1,999,646 bp long genome (including one plasmid) with its 1,914 protein-coding and 59 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
    • Complete genome sequence of the termite hindgut bacterium Spirochaeta coccoides type strain (SPN1(T)), reclassification in the genus Sphaerochaeta as Sphaerochaeta coccoides comb. nov. and emendations of the family Spirochaetaceae and the genus Sphaerochaeta.

      Abt, Birte; Han, Cliff; Scheuner, Carmen; Lu, Megan; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; et al. (2012-05-25)
      Spirochaeta coccoides Dröge et al. 2006 is a member of the genus Spirochaeta Ehrenberg 1835, one of the oldest named genera within the Bacteria. S. coccoides is an obligately anaerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, spherical bacterium that was isolated from the hindgut contents of the termite Neotermes castaneus. The species is of interest because it may play an important role in the digestion of breakdown products from cellulose and hemicellulose in the termite gut. Here we provide a taxonomic re-evaluation for strain SPN1(T), and based on physiological and genomic characteristics, we propose its reclassification as a novel species in the genus Sphaerochaeta, a recently published sister group of the Spirochaeta. The 2,227,296 bp long genome of strain SPN1(T) with its 1,866 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
    • Complete genome sequence of the thermophilic sulfate-reducing ocean bacterium Thermodesulfatator indicus type strain (CIR29812(T)).

      Anderson, Iain; Saunders, Elizabeth; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; et al. (2012-05-25)
      Thermodesulfatator indicus Moussard et al. 2004 is a member of the Thermodesulfobacteriaceae, a family in the phylum Thermodesulfobacteria that is currently poorly characterized at the genome level. Members of this phylum are of interest because they represent a distinct, deep-branching, Gram-negative lineage. T. indicus is an anaerobic, thermophilic, chemolithoautotrophic sulfate reducer isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. The 2,322,224 bp long chromosome with its 2,233 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
    • Genome sequence of the ocean sediment bacterium Saccharomonospora marina type strain (XMU15(T)).

      Klenk, Hans-Peter; Lu, Megan; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Pitluck, Sam; Goodwin, Lynne A; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; et al. (2012-05-25)
      Saccharomonospora marina Liu et al. 2010 is a member of the genus Saccharomonospora, in the family Pseudonocardiaceae that is poorly characterized at the genome level thus far. Members of the genus Saccharomonospora are of interest because they originate from diverse habitats, such as leaf litter, manure, compost, surface of peat, moist, over-heated grain, and ocean sediment, where they might play a role in the primary degradation of plant material by attacking hemicellulose. Organisms belonging to the genus are usually Gram-positive staining, non-acid fast, and classify among the actinomycetes. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence (permanent draft status), and annotation. The 5,965,593 bp long chromosome with its 5,727 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes was sequenced as part of the DOE funded Community Sequencing Program (CSP) 2010 at the Joint Genome Institute (JGI).
    • Genome sequence of the soil bacterium Saccharomonospora azurea type strain (NA-128(T)).

      Klenk, Hans-Peter; Held, Brittany; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Hammon, Nancy; Pitluck, Sam; Goodwin, Lynne A; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; et al. (2012-05-25)
      Saccharomonospora azurea Runmao et al. 1987 is a member of the genus Saccharomonospora, which is in the family Pseudonocardiaceae and thus far poorly characterized genomically. Members of the genus Saccharomonospora are of interest because they originate from diverse habitats, such as leaf litter, manure, compost, the surface of peat, and moist and over-heated grain, and may play a role in the primary degradation of plant material by attacking hemicellulose. Next to S. viridis, S. azurea is only the second member in the genus Saccharomonospora for which a completely sequenced type strain genome will be published. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence with project status 'Improved high quality draft', and the annotation. The 4,763,832 bp long chromosome with its 4,472 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes was sequenced as part of the DOE funded Community Sequencing Program (CSP) 2010 at the Joint Genome Institute (JGI).
    • Complete genome sequence of the facultatively anaerobic, appendaged bacterium Muricauda ruestringensis type strain (B1(T)).

      Huntemann, Marcel; Teshima, Hazuki; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A; et al. (2012-05-25)
      Muricauda ruestringensis Bruns et al. 2001 is the type species of the genus Muricauda, which belongs to the family Flavobacteriaceae in the phylum Bacteroidetes. The species is of interest because of its isolated position in the genomically unexplored genus Muricauda, which is located in a part of the tree of life containing not many organisms with sequenced genomes. The genome, which consists of a circular chromosome of 3,842,422 bp length with a total of 3,478 protein-coding and 47 RNA genes, is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
    • Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections in north and south India.

      Haggar, Axana; Nerlich, Andreas; Kumar, Rajesh; Abraham, Vinod J; Brahmadathan, Kootallur N; Ray, Pallab; Dhanda, Vanita; Joshua, John Melbin Jose; Mehra, Narinder; Bergmann, Rene; et al. (2012-05)
      The lack of epidemiologic data on invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections in many developing countries is concerning, as S. pyogenes infections are commonly endemic in these areas. Here we present the results of the first prospective surveillance study of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections in India. Fifty-four patients with invasive S. pyogenes infections were prospectively enrolled at two study sites, one in the north and one in the south of India. Sterile-site isolates were collected, and clinical information was documented using a standardized questionnaire. Available acute-phase sera were tested for their ability to inhibit superantigens produced by the patient's own isolate using a cell-based neutralizing assay. The most common clinical presentations were bacteremia without focus (30%), pneumonia (28%), and cellulitis (17%). Only two cases of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and no cases of necrotizing fasciitis were identified. Characterization of the isolates revealed great heterogeneity, with 32 different emm subtypes and 29 different superantigen gene profiles being represented among the 49 sterile-site isolates. Analyses of acute-phase sera showed that only 20% of the cases in the north cohort had superantigen-neutralizing activity in their sera, whereas 50% of the cases from the south site had neutralizing activity. The results demonstrate that there are important differences in both clinical presentation and strain characteristics between invasive S. pyogenes infections in India and invasive S. pyogenes infections in Western countries. The findings underscore the importance of epidemiologic studies on streptococcal infections in India and have direct implications for current vaccine developments.
    • Cellular aspects of the distinct M protein and SfbI anchoring pathways in Streptococcus pyogenes.

      Raz, Assaf; Talay, Susanne R; Fischetti, Vincent A; Bacterial Pathogenesis and Immunology, Rockefeller University, New York, USA. araz@rockefeller.edu (2012-05)
      Wall-anchored surface proteins are critical for the in vivo survival of Streptococcus pyogenes. Cues in the signal sequence direct the membrane translocation of surface proteins: M protein to the septum, and SfbI to the poles. Both proteins are subsequently anchored to the wall by the membrane bound enzyme sortase A. However, the cellular features of these pathways are not fully understood. Here we show that M protein and SfbI are anchored simultaneously throughout the cell cycle. M protein is rapidly anchored at the septum, and in part of the cell cycle, is anchored simultaneously at the mother and daughter septa. Conversely, SfbI accumulates gradually on peripheral peptidoglycan, resulting in a polar distribution. Sortase is not required for translocation of M protein or SfbI at their respective locations. Methicillin-induced unbalanced peptidoglycan synthesis diminishes surface M protein but not SfbI. Furthermore, overexpression of the division regulator DivIVA also diminishes surface M protein but increases SfbI. These results demonstrate a close connection between the regulation of cell division and protein anchoring. Better understanding of the spatial regulation of surface anchoring may lead to the identification of novel targets for the development of anti-infective agents, given the importance of surface molecules for pathogenesis.
    • Rapid paracellular transmigration of Campylobacter jejuni across polarized epithelial cells without affecting TER: role of proteolytic-active HtrA cleaving E-cadherin but not fibronectin

      Boehm, Manja; Hoy, Benjamin; Rohde, Manfred; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Bæk, Kristoffer T; Oyarzabal, Omar A; Brøndsted, Lone; Wessler, Silja; Backert, Steffen (2012-04-25)
      Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most important bacterial pathogens causing food-borne illness worldwide. Crossing the intestinal epithelial barrier and host cell entry by C. jejuni is considered the primary reason of damage to the intestinal tissue, but the molecular mechanisms as well as major bacterial and host cell factors involved in this process are still widely unclear. Results In the present study, we characterized the serine protease HtrA (high-temperature requirement A) of C. jejuni as a secreted virulence factor with important proteolytic functions. Infection studies and in vitro cleavage assays showed that C. jejuni’s HtrA triggers shedding of the extracellular E-cadherin NTF domain (90 kDa) of non-polarised INT-407 and polarized MKN-28 epithelial cells, but fibronectin was not cleaved as seen for H. pylori’s HtrA. Deletion of the htrA gene in C. jejuni or expression of a protease-deficient S197A point mutant did not lead to loss of flagella or reduced bacterial motility, but led to severe defects in E-cadherin cleavage and transmigration of the bacteria across polarized MKN-28 cell layers. Unlike other highly invasive pathogens, transmigration across polarized cells by wild-type C. jejuni is highly efficient and is achieved within a few minutes of infection. Interestingly, E-cadherin cleavage by C. jejuni occurs in a limited fashion and transmigration required the intact flagella as well as HtrA protease activity, but does not reduce transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) as seen with Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria or Neisseria. Conclusion These results suggest that HtrA-mediated E-cadherin cleavage is involved in rapid crossing of the epithelial barrier by C. jejuni via a very specific mechanism using the paracellular route to reach basolateral surfaces, but does not cleave the fibronectin receptor which is necessary for cell entry.
    • Tumor necrosis factor alpha modulates the dynamics of the plasminogen-mediated early interaction between Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and human enterocytes.

      Centanni, Manuela; Bergmann, Simone; Turroni, Silvia; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Chhatwal, Gursharan Singh; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy. (2012-04)
      The capacity to intervene with the host plasminogen system has recently been considered an important component in the interaction process between Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and the human host. However, its significance in the bifidobacterial microecology within the human gastrointestinal tract is still an open question. Here we demonstrate that human plasminogen favors the B. animalis subsp. lactis BI07 adhesion to HT29 cells. Prompting the HT29 cell capacity to activate plasminogen, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) modulated the plasminogen-mediated bacterium-enterocyte interaction, reducing the bacterial adhesion to the enterocytes and enhancing migration to the luminal compartment.
    • Complete genome sequence of the aerobic, heterotroph Marinithermus hydrothermalis type strain (T1(T)) from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney.

      Copeland, Alex; Gu, Wei; Yasawong, Montri; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Deshpande, Shweta; Pagani, Ioanna; Tapia, Roxanne; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A; et al. (2012-03-19)
      Marinithermus hydrothermalis Sako et al. 2003 is the type species of the monotypic genus Marinithermus. M. hydrothermalis T1(T) was the first isolate within the phylum "Thermus-Deinococcus" to exhibit optimal growth under a salinity equivalent to that of sea water and to have an absolute requirement for NaCl for growth. M. hydrothermalis T1(T) is of interest because it may provide a new insight into the ecological significance of the aerobic, thermophilic decomposers in the circulation of organic compounds in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the genus Marinithermus and the seventh sequence from the family Thermaceae. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,269,167 bp long genome with its 2,251 protein-coding and 59 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
    • Complete genome sequence of Halopiger xanaduensis type strain (SH-6(T)).

      Anderson, Iain; Tindall, Brian J; Rohde, Manfred; Lucas, Susan; Han, James; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Peters, Lin; et al. (2012-03-19)
      Halopiger xanaduensis is the type species of the genus Halopiger and belongs to the euryarchaeal family Halobacteriaceae. H. xanaduensis strain SH-6, which is designated as the type strain, was isolated from the sediment of a salt lake in Inner Mongolia, Lake Shangmatala. Like other members of the family Halobacteriaceae, it is an extreme halophile requiring at least 2.5 M salt for growth. We report here the sequencing and annotation of the 4,355,268 bp genome, which includes one chromosome and three plasmids. This genome is part of a Joint Genome Institute (JGI) Community Sequencing Program (CSP) project to sequence diverse haloarchaeal genomes.
    • Complete genome sequence of the sulfur compounds oxidizing chemolithoautotroph Sulfuricurvum kujiense type strain (YK-1(T)).

      Han, Cliff; Kotsyurbenko, Oleg; Chertkov, Olga; Held, Brittany; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; et al. (2012-03-19)
      Sulfuricurvum kujiense Kodama and Watanabe 2004 is the type species of the monotypic genus Sulfuricurvum, which belongs to the family Helicobacteraceae in the class Epsilonproteobacteria. The species is of interest because it is frequently found in crude oil and oil sands where it utilizes various reduced sulfur compounds such as elemental sulfur, sulfide and thiosulfate as electron donors. Members of the species do not utilize sugars, organic acids or hydrocarbons as carbon and energy sources. This genome sequence represents the type strain of the only species in the genus Sulfuricurvum. The genome, which consists of a circular chromosome of 2,574,824 bp length and four plasmids of 118,585 bp, 71,513 bp, 51,014 bp, and 3,421 bp length, respectively, harboring a total of 2,879 protein-coding and 61 RNA genes and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
    • Rapid paracellular transmigration of Campylobacter jejuni across polarized epithelial cells without affecting TER: role of proteolytic-active HtrA cleaving E-cadherin but not fibronectin.

      Boehm, Manja; Hoy, Benjamin; Rohde, Manfred; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Bæk, Kristoffer T; Oyarzabal, Omar A; Brøndsted, Lone; Wessler, Silja; Backert, Steffen; From the School for Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Belfield Campus, Dublin-4, Ireland. Steffen.Backert@ucd.ie. (2012)
      ABSTRACT: