Now showing items 21-40 of 3088

    • The chlamydial deubiquitinase Cdu1 supports recruitment of Golgi vesicles to the inclusion.

      Auer, Daniela; Hügelschäffer, Sophie D; Fischer, Annette B; Rudel, Thomas; HIRI, Helmholtz-Institut für RNA-basierte Infektionsforschung, Josef-Shneider Strasse 2, 97080 Würzburg, Germany. (Wiley, 2019-11-01)
      Chlamydia trachomatis is the main cause of sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. As obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia replicate in a membrane bound vacuole called inclusion and acquire nutrients for growth and replication from their host cells. However, like all intracellular bacteria, Chlamydia have to prevent eradication by the host's cell autonomous system. The chlamydial deubiquitinase Cdu1 is secreted into the inclusion membrane, facing the host cell cytosol where it deubiquitinates cellular proteins. Here we show that inactivation of Cdu1 causes a growth defect of C. trachomatis in primary cells. Moreover, ubiquitin and several autophagy receptors are recruited to the inclusion membrane of Cdu1-deficient Chlamydia. Interestingly, the growth defect of cdu1 mutants is not rescued when autophagy is prevented. We find reduced recruitment of Golgi vesicles to the inclusion of Cdu1 mutants indicating that vesicular trafficking is altered in bacteria without active deubiquitinase (DUB). Our work elucidates an important role of Cdu1 in the functional preservation of the chlamydial inclusion surface.
    • Knockdown of Virus Antigen Expression Increases Therapeutic Vaccine Efficacy in High-titer HBV Carrier Mice.

      Michler, Thomas; Kosinska, Anna D; Festag, Julia; Bunse, Till; Su, Jinpeng; Ringelhan, Marc; Imhof, Hortenzia; Grimm, Dirk; Steiger, Katja; Mogler, Carolin; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-01-28)
      In both models of HBV infection, mice that express hepatocyte-specific small hairpin RNAs or that were given subcutaneous injections of siRNAs had reduced levels of HBV antigens, HBV replication, and viremia (1-3 log10 reduction), compared to mice given control RNAs. Vaccination induced production of HBV-neutralizing antibodies, and increased numbers and functionality of HBV-specific, CD8+ T-cells in mice with low, but not in mice with high levels of HBV antigen. Mice with initially high titers of HBV and knockdown of HBV antigen expression, but not mice with reduced viremia following administration of entecavir, developed polyfunctional, HBV-specific CD8+ T cells and HBV was eliminated.
    • Recirculating IL-1R2 Tregs fine-tune intrathymic Treg development under inflammatory conditions.

      Nikolouli, Eirini; Elfaki, Yassin; Herppich, Susanne; Schelmbauer, Carsten; Delacher, Michael; Falk, Christine; Mufazalov, Ilgiz A; Waisman, Ari; Feuerer, Markus; Huehn, Jochen; et al. (Springer Nature, 2020-01-27)
      The vast majority of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are generated in the thymus, and several factors, such as cytokines and unique thymic antigen-presenting cells, are known to contribute to the development of these thymus-derived Tregs (tTregs). Here, we report the existence of a specific subset of Foxp3+ Tregs within the thymus that is characterized by the expression of IL-1R2, which is a decoy receptor for the inflammatory cytokine IL-1. Detailed flow cytometric analysis of the thymocytes from Foxp3hCD2xRAG1GFP reporter mice revealed that the IL-1R2+ Tregs are mainly RAG1GFP- and CCR6+CCR7-, demonstrating that these Tregs are recirculating cells entering the thymus from the periphery and that they have an activated phenotype. In the spleen, the majority of IL-1R2+ Tregs express neuropilin-1 (Nrp-1) and Helios, suggesting a thymic origin for these Tregs. Interestingly, among all tissues studied, the highest frequency of IL-1R2+ Tregs was observed in the thymus, indicating preferential recruitment of this Treg subset by the thymus. Using fetal thymic organ cultures (FTOCs), we demonstrated that increased concentrations of exogenous IL-1β blocked intrathymic Treg development, resulting in a decreased frequency of CD25+Foxp3+ tTregs and an accumulation of CD25+Foxp3- Treg precursors. Interestingly, the addition of IL-1R2+ Tregs, but not IL-1R2- Tregs, to reaggregated thymic organ cultures (RTOCs) abrogated the IL-1β-mediated blockade, demonstrating that these recirculating IL-1R2+ Tregs can quench IL-1 signaling in the thymus and thereby maintain thymic Treg development even under inflammatory conditions.
    • Obstetric Ultrasonography to Detect Fetal Abnormalities in a Mouse Model for Zika Virus Infection.

      Forster, Dominik; Schwarz, Jan Hendrik; Brosinski, Katrin; Kalinke, Ulrich; Sutter, Gerd; Volz, Asisa; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH,Feodor-Lynen Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (MDPI, 2020-01-07)
      In 2015 Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged for the first time in South America. The following ZIKV epidemic resulted in the appearance of a clinical phenotype with microcephaly and other severe malformations in newborns. So far, mechanisms of ZIKV induced damage to the fetus are not completely understood. Previous data suggest that ZIKV may bypass the placenta to reach the fetus. Thus, animal models for ZIKV infection are important to facilitate studies about ZIKV infection during pregnancy. Here, we used ultrasound based imaging (USI) to characterize ZIKV induced pathogenesis in the pregnant Type I interferon receptor-deficient (IFNAR-/-) mouse model. Based on USI we suggest the placenta to be a primary target organ of ZIKV infection enabling ZIKV spreading to the fetus. Moreover, in addition to direct infection of the fetus, the placental ZIKV infection may cause an indirect damage to the fetus through reduced uteroplacental perfusion leading to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and fetal complications as early as embryonic day (ED) 12.5. Our data confirmed the capability of USI to characterize ZIKV induced modifications in mouse fetuses. Data from further studies using USI to monitor ZIKV infections will contribute to a better understanding of ZIKV infection in pregnant IFNAR-/- mice.
    • Competitive exclusion is a major bioprotective mechanism of lactobacilli against fungal spoilage in fermented milk products.

      Siedler, Solvej; Rau, Martin Holm; Bidstrup, Susanne; Vento, Justin M; Aunsbjerg, Stina Dissing; Bosma, Elleke F; McNair, Laura M; Beisel, Chase L; Neves, Ana Rute; HIRI, Helmholtz-Institut für RNA-basierte Infektionsforschung, Josef-Shneider Strasse 2, 97080 Würzburg, Germany. (American Society of Microbiology, 2020-01-31)
      A prominent feature of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is their ability to inhibit growth of spoilage organisms in food, but hitherto research efforts to establish the mechanisms underlying bioactivity focused on the production of antimicrobial compounds by LAB. We show in this study, that competitive exclusion, i.e, competition for a limited resource by different organisms, is a major mechanism of fungal growth inhibition by lactobacilli in fermented dairy products. The depletion of the essential trace element manganese by two Lactobacillus species was uncovered as the main mechanism for growth inhibition of dairy spoilage yeast and molds. A manganese transporter (MntH1), representing one of the highest expressed gene products in both lactobacilli, facilitates the exhaustive manganese scavenging. Expression of the mntH1 gene was found to be strain-dependent, affected by species co-culturing and growth phase. Further, deletion of the mntH1 gene in one of the strains resulted in loss of bioactivity, proving this gene to be important for manganese depletion. The presence of a mntH gene displayed a distinct phylogenetic pattern within the Lactobacillus genus. Moreover, assaying the bioprotective ability in fermented milk of selected lactobacilli from ten major phylogenetic groups identified a correlation between the presence of mntH and bioprotective activity. Thus, manganese scavenging emerges as a common trait within the Lactobacillus genus, but differences in expression result in some strains showing more bioprotective effect than others.In summary, competitive exclusion through ion depletion is herein reported a novel mechanism in LAB to delay growth of spoilage contaminants in dairy products.IMPORTANCE In societies that have food choices, conscious consumers demand natural solutions to keep their food healthy and fresh during storage, simultaneously reducing food waste. The use of "good bacteria" to protect food against spoilage organisms has a long successful history, even though the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we show that depletion of free manganese is a major bioprotective mechanism of lactobacilli in dairy products. High manganese uptake and intracellular storage provides a link to the distinct non-enzymatic manganese catalyzed oxidative stress defense mechanism, previously described for certain lactobacilli. The evaluation of representative Lactobacillus species in our study identifies multiple relevant species groups for fungal growth inhibition via manganese depletion. Hence, through the natural mechanism of nutrient depletion, the use of dedicated bioprotective lactobacilli constitutes an attractive alternative to artificial preservation.
    • Coupling quaternary ammonium surfactants to the surface of liposomes improves both antibacterial efficacy and host cell biocompatibility

      Montefusco-Pereira, Carlos V.; Formicola, Beatrice; Goes, Adriely; Re, Francesca; Marrano, Claudia A.; Mantegazza, Francesco; Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Fuhrmann, Gregor; Caneva, Enrico; Nicotra, Francesco; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-04)
      By functionalizing the surface of PEG-liposomes with linkers bearing quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), we generated novel bacteria disruptors with anti-adhesive properties and reduced cytotoxicity compared to free QACs. Furthermore, QAC-functionalized liposomes are a promising platform for future drug encapsulation. The QAC (11-mercaptoundecyl)-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide (MTAB) was attached to maleimide-functionalized liposomes (DSPE-PEG) via thiol linker. The MTAB-functionalized liposomes were physicochemically characterized and their biological activity, in terms of anti-adherence activity and biofilm prevention in Escherichia coli were assessed. The results showed that MTAB-functionalized liposomes inhibit bacterial adherence and biofilm formation while reducing MTAB toxicity.
    • A probabilistic projection of beneficiaries of long-term care insurance in Germany by severity of disability

      Vanella, Patrizio; Heß, Moritz; Wilke, Christina B.; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Springer, 2020-01-01)
      Demographic aging puts social insurance systems under immense pressure as frailty risks increase with age. The statutory long-term care insurance in Germany (GPV), whose society has been aging for decades due to low fertility and decreasing mortality, faces massive future pressure. The present study presents a stochastic outlook on long-term care insurance in Germany until 2045 by forecasting the future number of frail persons who could claim insurance services by severity level with theory-based Monte Carlo simulations. The simulations result in credible intervals for age-, sex- and severity-specific care rates as well as the numbers of persons for all combinations of age, sex and severity by definition of the GPV on an annual basis. The model accounts for demographic trends through time series analysis and considers all realistic epidemiological developments by simulation. The study shows that increases in the general prevalence of disabilities, especially for severe disabilities, caused by the demographic development in Germany are unavoidable, whereas the influence of changes in agespecific care risks does not affect the outcome significantly. The results may serve as a basis for estimating the future demand for care nurses and the financial expenses of the GPV.
    • Reproducible Colonization of Germ-Free Mice With the Oligo-Mouse-Microbiota in Different Animal Facilities.

      Eberl, Claudia; Ring, Diana; Münch, Philipp C; Beutler, Markus; Basic, Marijana; Slack, Emma Caroline; Schwarzer, Martin; Srutkova, Dagmar; Lange, Anna; Frick, Julia S; et al. (Frontiers, 2019-01-01)
      The Oligo-Mouse-Microbiota (OMM12) is a recently developed synthetic bacterial community for functional microbiome research in mouse models (Brugiroux et al., 2016). To date, the OMM12 model has been established in several germ-free mouse facilities world-wide and is employed to address a growing variety of research questions related to infection biology, mucosal immunology, microbial ecology and host-microbiome metabolic cross-talk. The OMM12 consists of 12 sequenced and publically available strains isolated from mice, representing five bacterial phyla that are naturally abundant in the murine gastrointestinal tract (Lagkouvardos et al., 2016). Under germ-free conditions, the OMM12 colonizes mice stably over multiple generations. Here, we investigated whether stably colonized OMM12 mouse lines could be reproducibly established in different animal facilities. Germ-free C57Bl/6J mice were inoculated with a frozen mixture of the OMM12 strains. Within 2 weeks after application, the OMM12 community reached the same stable composition in all facilities, as determined by fecal microbiome analysis. We show that a second application of the OMM12 strains after 72 h leads to a more stable community composition than a single application. The availability of such protocols for reliable de novo generation of gnotobiotic rodents will certainly contribute to increasing experimental reproducibility in biomedical research.
    • Potential TMA-Producing Bacteria Are Ubiquitously Found in Mammalia.

      Rath, Silke; Rud, Tatjana; Pieper, Dietmar H; Vital, Marius; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Frontiers, 2019-01-01)
      Human gut bacteria metabolize dietary components such as choline and carnitine to trimethylamine (TMA) that is subsequently oxidized to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) by hepatic enzymes. Increased plasma levels of TMAO are associated with the development of cardiovascular and renal disease. In this study, we applied gene-targeted assays in order to quantify (qPCR) and characterize (MiSeq) bacterial genes encoding enzymes responsible for TMA production, namely choline-TMA lyase (CutC), carnitine oxygenase (CntA) and betaine reductase (GrdH) in 89 fecal samples derived from various mammals spanning three dietary groups (carnivores, omnivores and herbivores) and four host orders (Carnivora, Primates, Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla). All samples contained potential TMA-producing bacteria, however, at low abundances (<1.2% of total community). The cutC gene was more abundant in omnivores and carnivores compared with herbivores. CntA was almost absent from herbivores and grdH showed lowest average abundance of all three genes. Bacteria harboring cutC and grdH displayed high diversities where sequence types affiliated with various taxa within Firmicutes dominated, whereas cntA comprised sequences primarily linked to Escherichia. Composition of TMA-forming communities was strongly influenced by diet and host taxonomy and despite their high correlation, both factors contributed uniquely to community structure. Furthermore, Random Forest (RF) models could differentiate between groups at high accuracies. This study gives a comprehensive overview of potential TMA-producing bacteria in the mammalian gut demonstrating that both diet and host taxonomy govern their abundance and composition. It highlights the role of functional redundancy sustaining potential TMA formation in distinct gut environments.
    • Discovery of Paenibacillus larvae ERIC V: Phenotypic and genomic comparison to genotypes ERIC I-IV reveal different inventories of virulence factors which correlate with epidemiological prevalences of American Foulbrood.

      Beims, Hannes; Bunk, Boyke; Erler, Silvio; Mohr, Kathrin I; Spröer, Cathrin; Pradella, Silke; Günther, Gabi; Rohde, Manfred; von der Ohe, Werner; Steinert, Michael; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-02-01)
      Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American Foulbrood (AFB), a highly contagious brood disease of honey bees (Apis mellifera). AFB requires mandatory reporting to the veterinary authority in many countries and until now four genotypes, P. larvae ERIC I-IV, have been identified. We isolated a new genotype, ERIC V, from a Spanish honey sample. After a detailed phenotypic comparison with the reference strains of the ERIC I-IV genotypes, including spore morphology, non-ribosomal peptide (NRP) profiling, and in vivo infections of A. mellifera larvae, we established a genomic DNA Macrorestriction Fragment Pattern Analysis (MRFPA) scheme for future epidemiologic discrimination. Whole genome comparison of the reference strains and the new ERIC V genotype (DSM 106052) revealed that the respective virulence gene inventories of the five genotypes corresponded with the time needed to kill 100 % of the infected bee larvae (LT100) in in vivo infection assays. The rarely isolated P. larvae genotypes ERIC II I-V with a fast-killing phenotype (LT100 3 days) harbor genes with high homology to virulence factors of other insect pathogens. These virulence genes are absent in the epidemiologically prevalent genotypes ERIC I (LT100 12 days) and ERIC II (LT100 7 days), which exhibit slower killing phenotypes. Since killing-retardation is known to reduce the success of hygienic cleaning by nurse bees, the identified absence of virulence factors might explain the epidemiological prevalences of ERIC genotypes. The discovery of the P. larvae ERIC V isolate suggests that more unknown ERIC genotypes exist in bee colonies. Since inactivation or loss of a few genes can transform a fast-killing phenotype into a more dangerous slow-killing phenotype, these rarely isolated genotypes may represent a hidden reservoir for future AFB outbreaks.
    • The Antiviral Activity of the Cellular Glycoprotein LGALS3BP/90K Is Species Specific.

      Lodermeyer, Veronika; Ssebyatika, George; Passos, Vânia; Ponnurangam, Aparna; Malassa, Angelina; Ewald, Ellen; Stürzel, Christina M; Kirchhoff, Frank; Rotger, Margalida; Falk, Christine S; et al. (American Society for Microbiology (ASM), 2018-07-15)
      Cellular antiviral proteins interfere with distinct steps of replication cycles of viruses. The galectin 3 binding protein (LGALS3BP, also known as 90K) was previously shown to lower the infectivity of nascent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions when expressed in virus-producing cells. This antiviral effect was accompanied by impaired gp160Env processing and reduced viral incorporation of mature Env glycoproteins. Here, we examined the ability of 90K orthologs from primate species to reduce the particle infectivity of distinct lentiviruses. We show that 90K's ability to diminish the infectivity of lentiviral particles is conserved within primate species, with the notable exception of 90K from rhesus macaque. Comparison of active and inactive 90K orthologs and variants uncovered the fact that inhibition of processing of the HIV-1 Env precursor and reduction of cell surface expression of HIV-1 Env gp120 are required, but not sufficient, for 90K-mediated antiviral activity. Rather, 90K-mediated reduction of virion-associated gp120 coincided with antiviral activity, suggesting that 90K impairs the incorporation of HIV-1 Env into budding virions. We show that a single "humanizing" amino acid exchange in the BTB (broad-complex, tramtrack, and bric-à-brac)/POZ (poxvirus and zinc finger) domain is sufficient to fully rescue the antiviral activity of a shortened version of rhesus macaque 90K, but not that of the full-length protein. Comparison of the X-ray structures of the BTB/POZ domains of 90K from rhesus macaques and humans point toward a slightly larger hydrophobic patch at the surface of the rhesus macaque BTB domain that may modulate a direct interaction with either a second 90K domain or a different protein.IMPORTANCE The cellular 90K protein has been shown to diminish the infectivity of nascent HIV-1 particles. When produced in 90K-expressing cells, particles bear smaller amounts of the HIV-1 Env glycoprotein, which is essential for attaching to and entering new target cells in the subsequent infection round. However, whether the antiviral function of 90K is conserved across primates is unknown. Here, we found that 90K orthologs from most primate species, but, surprisingly, not from rhesus macaques, inhibit HIV-1. The introduction of a single amino acid exchange into a short version of the rhesus macaque 90K protein, consisting of the two intermediate domains of 90K, resulted in full restoration of antiviral activity. Structural elucidation of the respective domain suggests that the absence of antiviral activity in the rhesus macaque factor may be linked to a subtle change in protein-protein interaction.
    • The Antiviral Activity of the Cellular Glycoprotein LGALS3BP/90K Is Species Specific.

      Lodermeyer, Veronika; Ssebyatika, George; Passos, Vânia; Ponnurangam, Aparna; Malassa, Angelina; Ewald, Ellen; Stürzel, Christina M; Kirchhoff, Frank; Rotger, Margalida; Falk, Christine S; et al. (American Society for Microbiology (ASM), 2018-07-15)
      Cellular antiviral proteins interfere with distinct steps of replication cycles of viruses. The galectin 3 binding protein (LGALS3BP, also known as 90K) was previously shown to lower the infectivity of nascent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions when expressed in virus-producing cells. This antiviral effect was accompanied by impaired gp160Env processing and reduced viral incorporation of mature Env glycoproteins. Here, we examined the ability of 90K orthologs from primate species to reduce the particle infectivity of distinct lentiviruses. We show that 90K's ability to diminish the infectivity of lentiviral particles is conserved within primate species, with the notable exception of 90K from rhesus macaque. Comparison of active and inactive 90K orthologs and variants uncovered the fact that inhibition of processing of the HIV-1 Env precursor and reduction of cell surface expression of HIV-1 Env gp120 are required, but not sufficient, for 90K-mediated antiviral activity. Rather, 90K-mediated reduction of virion-associated gp120 coincided with antiviral activity, suggesting that 90K impairs the incorporation of HIV-1 Env into budding virions. We show that a single "humanizing" amino acid exchange in the BTB (broad-complex, tramtrack, and bric-à-brac)/POZ (poxvirus and zinc finger) domain is sufficient to fully rescue the antiviral activity of a shortened version of rhesus macaque 90K, but not that of the full-length protein. Comparison of the X-ray structures of the BTB/POZ domains of 90K from rhesus macaques and humans point toward a slightly larger hydrophobic patch at the surface of the rhesus macaque BTB domain that may modulate a direct interaction with either a second 90K domain or a different protein.IMPORTANCE The cellular 90K protein has been shown to diminish the infectivity of nascent HIV-1 particles. When produced in 90K-expressing cells, particles bear smaller amounts of the HIV-1 Env glycoprotein, which is essential for attaching to and entering new target cells in the subsequent infection round. However, whether the antiviral function of 90K is conserved across primates is unknown. Here, we found that 90K orthologs from most primate species, but, surprisingly, not from rhesus macaques, inhibit HIV-1. The introduction of a single amino acid exchange into a short version of the rhesus macaque 90K protein, consisting of the two intermediate domains of 90K, resulted in full restoration of antiviral activity. Structural elucidation of the respective domain suggests that the absence of antiviral activity in the rhesus macaque factor may be linked to a subtle change in protein-protein interaction.
    • Benzanthric Acid, a Novel Metabolite From Del14 Expressing the Nybomycin Gene Cluster.

      Rodríguez Estévez, Marta; Gummerlich, Nils; Myronovskyi, Maksym; Zapp, Josef; Luzhetskyy, Andriy; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Frontiers, 2019-01-01)
      Streptomycetes constitute a diverse bacterial group able to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites with potential applications in the pharmacy industry. However, the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of these compounds are very frequently inactive or expressed at very low levels under standard laboratory cultivation conditions. Therefore, the activation or upregulation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis genes is a crucial step for the discovery of new bioactive natural products. We have recently reported the discovery of the biosynthetic genes for the antibiotic nybomycin (nyb genes) in Streptomyces albus subsp. chlorinus. The nyb genes were expressed in the heterologous host Streptomyces albus Del14, which produces not only nybomycin, but also a novel compound. In this study, we describe the isolation, purification, and structure elucidation of the new substance named benzanthric acid.
    • Use of Surveillance Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System for Human Monkeypox Outbreak, Nigeria, 2017-2019.

      Silenou, Bernard C; Tom-Aba, Daniel; Adeoye, Olawunmi; Arinze, Chinedu C; Oyiri, Ferdinand; Suleman, Anthony K; Yinka-Ogunleye, Adesola; Dörrbecker, Juliane; Ihekweazu, Chikwe; Krause, Gérard; et al. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2020-02-01)
      In November 2017, the mobile digital Surveillance Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System was deployed in 30 districts in Nigeria in response to an outbreak of monkeypox. Adaptation and activation of the system took 14 days, and its use improved timeliness, completeness, and overall capacity of the response.
    • Herpes simplex virus blocks host transcription termination via the bimodal activities of ICP27.

      Wang, Xiuye; Hennig, Thomas; Whisnant, Adam W; Erhard, Florian; Prusty, Bhupesh K; Friedel, Caroline C; Forouzmand, Elmira; Hu, William; Erber, Luke; Chen, Yue; et al. (Nature publishing group, 2020-01-15)
      Infection by viruses, including herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), and cellular stresses causewidespread disruption of transcription termination (DoTT) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) inhost genes. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate thatthe HSV-1 immediate early protein ICP27 induces DoTT by directly binding to the essentialmRNA 3’processing factor CPSF. It thereby induces the assembly of a dead-end 3’processing complex, blocking mRNA 3’cleavage. Remarkably, ICP27 also acts as a sequence-dependent activator of mRNA 3’processing for viral and a subset of host transcripts.Our results unravel a bimodal activity of ICP27 that plays a key role in HSV-1-induced hostshutoff and identify CPSF as an important factor that mediates regulation of transcriptiontermination. Thesefindings have broad implications for understanding the regulation oftranscription termination by other viruses, cellular stress and cancer.
    • Factors associated with habitual time spent in different physical activity intensities using multiday accelerometry.

      Jaeschke, Lina; Steinbrecher, Astrid; Boeing, Heiner; Gastell, Sylvia; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Berger, Klaus; Brenner, Hermann; Ebert, Nina; Fischer, Beate; Greiser, Karin Halina; et al. (NPG, 2020-01-21)
      To investigate factors associated with time in physical activity intensities, we assessed physical activity of 249 men and women (mean age 51.3 years) by 7-day 24h-accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X+). Triaxial vector magnitude counts/minute were extracted to determine time in inactivity, in low-intensity, moderate, and vigorous-to-very-vigorous activity. Cross-sectional associations with sex, age, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, employment, income, marital status, diabetes, and dyslipidaemia were investigated in multivariable regression analyses. Higher age was associated with more time in low-intensity (mean difference, 7.3 min/d per 5 years; 95% confidence interval 2.0,12.7) and less time in vigorous-to-very-vigorous activity (-0.8 min/d; -1.4, -0.2), while higher BMI was related to less time in low-intensity activity (-3.7 min/d; -6.3, -1.2). Current versus never smoking was associated with more time in low-intensity (29.2 min/d; 7.5, 50.9) and less time in vigorous-to-very-vigorous activity (-3.9 min/d; -6.3, -1.5). Finally, having versus not having a university entrance qualification and being not versus full time employed were associated with more inactivity time (35.9 min/d; 13.0, 58.8, and 66.2 min/d; 34.7, 97.7, respectively) and less time in low-intensity activity (-31.7 min/d; -49.9, -13.4, and -50.7; -76.6, -24.8, respectively). The assessed factors show distinct associations with activity intensities, providing targets for public health measures aiming to increase activity.
    • An educational module to explore CRISPR technologies with a cell-free transcription-translation system

      Collias, Daphne; Marshall, Ryan; Collins, Scott P.; Beisel, Chase L.; Noireaux, Vincent; HIRI, Helmholtz-Institut für RNA-basierte Infektionsforschung, Josef-Shneider Strasse 2, 97080 Würzburg, Germany. (Oxford Academic, 2019-05-21)
      Within the last 6 years, CRISPR-Cas systems have transitioned from adaptive defense systems in bacteria and archaea to revolutionary genome-editing tools. The resulting CRISPR technologies have driven innovations for treating genetic diseases and eradicating human pests while raising societal questions about gene editing in human germline cells as well as crop plants. Bringing CRISPR into the classroom therefore offers a means to expose students to cutting edge technologies and to promote discussions about ethical questions at the intersection of science and society. However, working with these technologies in a classroom setting has been difficult because typical experiments rely on cellular systems such as bacteria or mammalian cells. We recently reported the use of an E. coli cell-free transcription-translation (TXTL) system that simplifies the demonstration and testing of CRISPR technologies with shorter experiments and limited equipment. Here, we describe three educational modules intended to expose undergraduate students to CRISPR technologies using TXTL. The three sequential modules comprise (i) designing the RNAs that guide DNA targeting, (ii) measuring DNA cleavage activity in TXTL and (iii) testing how mutations to the targeting sequence or RNA backbone impact DNA binding and cleavage. The modules include detailed protocols, questions for group discussions or individual evaluation, and lecture slides to introduce CRISPR and TXTL. We expect these modules to allow students to experience the power and promise of CRISPR technologies in the classroom and to engage with their instructor and peers about the opportunities and potential risks for society.
    • Hypericibacter terrae gen. nov., sp. nov. and sp. nov., two new members of the family isolated from the rhizosphere of Hypericum perforatum.

      Noviana, Zahra; Vieira, Selma; Pascual, Javier; Fobofou, Serge Alain Tanemossu; Rohde, Manfred; Spröer, Cathrin; Bunk, Boyke; Overmann, Jorg; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany.; German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, Inhoffenstraße 7B, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Microbiology Society, 2020-01-20)
      Two strains of the family Rhodospirillaceae were isolated from the rhizosphere of the medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum. Cells of both strains were Gram-stain-negative, motile by means of a single polar flagellum, non-spore-forming, non-capsulated, short rods that divided by binary fission. Colonies were small and white. Strains R5913T and R5959T were oxidase-positive, mesophilic, neutrophilic and grew optimally without NaCl. Both grew under aerobic and microaerophilic conditions and on a limited range of substrates with best results on yeast extract. Major fatty acids were C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c and C16 : 0; in addition, C18 : 1ω7c was also found as a predominant fatty acid in strain R5913T. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 10 (Q-10). The DNA G+C contents of strains R5913T and R5959T were 66.0 and 67.4 mol%, respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison revealed that the closest relatives (<92 % similarity) of the strains are Oceanibaculum pacificum MCCC 1A02656T, Dongia mobilis CGMCC 1.7660T, Dongia soli D78T and Dongia rigui 04SU4-PT. The two novel strains shared 98.6 % sequence similarity and represent different species on the basis of low average nucleotide identity of their genomes (83.8 %). Based on the combined phenotypic, genomic and phylogenetic investigations, the two strains represent two novel species of a new genus in the family Rhodospirillaceae, for which the name Hypericibacter gen. nov. is proposed, comprising the type species Hypericibacter terrae sp. nov. (type strain R5913T=DSM 109816T=CECT 9472T) and Hypericibacter adhaerens sp. nov. (type strain R5959T=DSM 109817T=CECT 9620T).
    • Discovery of Novel Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen Inhibitors as Antiviral Agents Against Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus.

      Kirsch, Philine; Jakob, Valentin; Elgaher, Walid A M; Walt, Christine; Oberhausen, Kevin; Schulz, Thomas F; Empting, Martin; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany.;HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (American Chemical Society (ACS), 2020-01-24)
      With the aim to develop novel antiviral agents against Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV), we are targeting the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA). This protein plays an important role in viral genome maintenance during latent infection. LANA has the ability to tether the viral genome to the host nucleosomes and, thus, ensures latent persistence of the viral genome in the host cells. By inhibition of the LANA-DNA interaction, we seek to eliminate or reduce the load of the viral DNA in the host. To achieve this goal, we screened our in-house library using a dedicated fluorescence polarization (FP)-based competition assay, which allows for the quantification of LANA-DNA-interaction inhibition by small organic molecules. We successfully identified three different compound classes capable of disrupting this protein-nucleic acid interaction. We characterized these compounds by IC50 dose-response evaluation and confirmed the compound-LANA interaction using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. Furthermore, two of the three hit scaffolds showed only marginal cytotoxicity in two human cell lines. Finally, we conducted STD-NMR competition experiments with our new hit compounds and a previously described fragment-sized inhibitor. Based on these results, future compound linking approaches could serve as a promising strategy for further optimization studies in order to generate highly potent KSHV inhibitors.
    • Direct recognition of hepatocyte-expressed MHC class I alloantigens is required for tolerance induction.

      Paul-Heng, Moumita; Leong, Mario; Cunningham, Eithne; Bunker, Daniel L J; Bremner, Katherine; Wang, Zane; Wang, Chuanmin; Tay, Szun Szun; McGuffog, Claire; Logan, Grant J; et al. (NLM (Medline), 2018-08-09)
      Adeno-associated viral vector–mediated (AAV-mediated) expression of allogeneic major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) in recipient liver induces donor-specific tolerance in mouse skin transplant models in which a class I allele (H-2Kb or H-2Kd) is mismatched between donor and recipient. Tolerance can be induced in mice primed by prior rejection of a donor-strain skin graft, as well as in naive recipients. Allogeneic MHC class I may be recognized by recipient T cells as an intact molecule (direct recognition) or may be processed and presented as an allogeneic peptide in the context of self-MHC (indirect recognition). The relative contributions of direct and indirect allorecognition to tolerance induction in this setting are unknown. Using hepatocyte-specific AAV vectors encoding WT allogeneic MHC class I molecules, or class I molecules containing a point mutation (D227K) that impedes direct recognition of intact allogeneic MHC class I by CD8+ T cells without hampering the presentation of processed peptides derived from allogeneic MHC class I, we show here that tolerance induction depends upon recognition of intact MHC class I. Indirect recognition alone yielded a modest prolongation of subsequent skin graft survival, attributable to the generation of CD4+ Tregs, but it was not sufficient to induce tolerance.